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Cyberspace likewise modifies the texture of this experience, by leaving the impression that the writing we find has dematerialized to the point of passing for something else, e. It is regularly suggested we are finally witnessing a consummate expression of what Walter Ong has called a secondary orality Ong 3 , a term used to describe situations where oral communication is mediated by writing and print technology.

However, this orality is first and foremost silent. The transition has been evoked through various oppositions: from papyrus to hypertext Vandendorpe , from codex to screen Chartier , from text to hypertext, or from the page to the screen. Whatever evaluation we make, a reconfiguration is taking place as we move towards a linked screen culture, and this forces us to re-examine the essential gestures involved in reading.

Every act of reading is comprised of three gestures: the overlapping and complementary acts of manipulation the basic modalities of appropriation , comprehension the act of understanding the text per se and interpretation the relationship established between the text being read and other texts explaining it. These gestures are present with every act of reading, and they are logically related one to the other. Reading is always manipulating a text, understanding it, and interpreting it.

Specific instances of reading can generate a greater emphasis on one of these gestures interpretation in literary studies for instance , however, their co-presence and overlapping constitute the foundation of every act of reading. Interpretation requires that some form of understanding be obtained. And comprehension necessitates that the text be manipulated with ease. If the last cannot be obtained, the whole edifice collapses. A text that cannot be manipulated, therefore be included in a genuine reading practice, will resist complex forms of understanding and become impermeable to interpretations.

Evidently, with our move from texts to hypertexts, with its implicit shift from paper to linked screens, it is this very activity of manipulation that has yet to be completely assimilated. Every adult reader has learned how to manipulate books, to the point that the manipulation is taken for granted. The level of automatism involved in this act is reflected in the numerous theories and hypotheses about reading traditionally debated in literary studies: they almost never take into consideration the manipulation or the material support of texts being read.

But, with linked screens and hypertexts, this learning still remains to be completed. The very metaphor of browsing is an obvious sign that this manipulation is still imperfect. To browse is to move from one thing to another, to remain disconnected — like the act of shopping, browsing text is about texts not yet ours. Consequently, we need to learn to do more than browse, we need to learn to take possession, make these new texts our own, re-appropriate them.

So what types of difficulties are inherent in the manipulation of these new forms of texts? A number of problems have already been identified. Certainly, the first is their novelty. Another is their institutional instability, i. Another four difficulties can be readily identified and are described next. Risks in Manipulation The first of these difficulties is the digitalization of the text — its dematerialization. The page is no longer made of paper, it is made of photons projected on a screen, and it requires new tools to be handled. In conjunction with this ephemeral way of being present, digitalization adds a new functionality.

Certainly, this computer function of the words impacts their semiotic function in ways that we do not yet understand. Are hyperlink words read the same way as simple words? I will argue in the next section that this function changes the way we read, transforming progression through texts from a logic of discovery to one of revelation.

Again, digitalization implies the increased presence of an invisible writing, what we call programming. On a page, no part of the text is invisible. Everything is there, unless of course you adopt the genetic approach to texts, where what is present is only a small part of what could have been written. However, in terms of reading, nothing is hidden. The same cannot be said of a hypertext, or any text on a linked screen. These forms require an invisible writing: links already established and operational throughout the act of reading, a programming that structures and organizes the nature of the text albeit implicitly, transforming the constraint of linearity, for example, into an accidental property.

A second difficulty is the ever increasing number of texts available in our cultural context of hyperextension. Accessibility, an ideal in a capitalist society, pays tribute with an uncontrollable influx of texts. Some have gone so far as to suggest that we are living in the age of a second flood, a flood of communication. This flood significantly changes our relationship with texts. They are no longer something rare as in a manuscript culture or usual as in a book culture , they are almost a menace.

We are less concerned with finding texts, and more concerned with stopping the flood of texts coming in. We need to construct dams capable of holding back this incredible mass. The situation of over abundance forces us to look for ways by which to reduce the amount of texts, to organize data, and make it manageable, with search engines and automated text analysis.

In fact, we do not want to read texts, we want to erase most of them. The need for selection is preponderant. If we are entering a new cognitive era, it seems to have exclusion as its core structuring principle. We can easily observe that research on reading and its processes these last two decades has been done less by literary scholars and more by linguists and researchers in cognitive science, looking to develop softwares capable of automatically analyzing texts, thereby accelerating their treatment.

The supreme value in our context of hyperextension is speed, hence the need for accelerated progression through texts. However this ever increasing need for speed has its toll on comprehension, which still requires time. With the impetus on accelerated reading processes, comprehension is more and more reduced to its most simple forms: literal meaning and superficial interpretation.

Banality is the foremost danger of digitalized and easily accessed texts. With fragments read on Internet sites, this immateriality is characterized by an absence of spatial-time determinations. Where is the text? What is the status of what appears on the screen? Instead of a corporeal text, the sheer materiality of page and book, we have the ghost text of cyberspace, a figure as untouchable as it is ephemeral. The digitalization of text, with its easy access, its ability to be present on numerous screens simultaneously, results in a loss of symbolic value.

A third difficulty arises with the complexity of the text itself — its essentially hybrid quality. More and more, texts share their space with images, animated sequences, sounds, etc. The Internet favors the development of iconotexts, i. Iconotexts have always been part of literature, albeit in a marginal fashion. Now, with the development of computer graphic design, iconotextuality has become a standard.

Texts on the Internet have a strong iconic component. Screen pages are set as in a newspaper, words are sometimes immersed in images, their fonts vary, and they compose a complex reality. They are no longer read, they are experienced as a spectacle. We are therefore pushed to the limits of textuality, where the text itself is no longer given to be read, but to be seen, to be contemplated as a figure.

It is the figure they constitute in their totality that now commands our attention. This transformation subordinates the perception of the words and their signification, necessarily codified, to an intuitive perception of images. It is a textual figure, an artifact, that first imposes itself while the information contained in the text recedes. If we want to read these textual figures, if we want to go back to what they might be saying, we have to go beyond their iconic dimension.

We have to accustom ourselves to their design and graphic aspects. Simply put, we must learn to manipulate them, until this first part of the reading process is assimilated. Textual figures appear unreadable, simply because our attention has been distracted by the glamour images and linked screens has brought into the reading experience.

Textual figures do not tell stories, they tell their own story. And the one they convey points towards a certain malaise. The computer is no longer a simple tool, it is a new medium. And in this medium, text does not disappear — it continues to be present, but it does so in an environment replete with signs where it seems to be fragile. Our relative inability to read the new forms of texts, and the difficulties encountered to appropriate them, stem, at least in part, from the constraints that the overall iconic context imposes on the reader.

The fear of the death of book culture is perhaps less a sign of the disappearance of text itself, than a sign of the increased presence in the immediate environment of images and their singular semiotics. It is useless to deprecate this fact — it is far more constructive to establish a communication between these two semiotic registers, and to construct the necessary bridges to move from one to the other. A Logic of Revelation The last difficulty is related to the actual status of the signs brought into play with hypertextuality. Electricity changes the nature of text — it transforms it into hypertext.

Through computer programming, a new function appears — one which operates at the frontier of semiotics and computers: it is the hyperlink. This sign, with its singular properties, seems to call us to discovery — at least on the surface — allowing us to move from text to text with ever increasing ease. However, in doing so, it neutralizes the very core of the reading process, which is discovery. The hyperlink is, surprisingly enough, a simulacrum of a sign — i.

Its uniqueness lies in the nature of the link it proposes and, to a certain extent, the role we play in establishing it. Are we its creators, or simply the users of the relationship set up by the link? The hyperlink in fact places us in the second role — users — which explains the logic of revelation it surreptitiously imposes.

A sign is essentially something which stands for something else for someone. In this triadic relationship, which finds its full development with C. Peirce , the sign is not directly linked with its object. It is the interpreter, or more precisely the interpretant, that establishes the relationship by identifying the object. The object of the sign is not determined absolutely, its attribution depends on the knowledge and experience of the interpretant.

With signs, we can always make mistakes. We can fail to fully understand the signification of a word and proceed to make a faulty attribution — e. This would be a faulty attribution. Because we are the masters of attribution, it requires our interpretants to be effective — and they can prove themselves to be inadequate. The signification of a sign is the unique result of our action on it. With the hyperlink, this logic is inverted: the link never varies, regardless of the interpreter who activates it. The hyperlink acts like a sign — it stands for something else for someone; however once programmed, it does so identically in every case.

The hypertext link, once activated, and this despite our interpretants, always goes to the next text to which it has been linked. It can never be faulty. Granted, it can be defective — in which case it is completely ineffective — however, it can never link to something else beyond what has been established. It is no longer operating in the order of the possible, it is a finished act only waiting for the push of a finger to reveal its true nature.

We no longer hypothesize at the moment of activation — there is no risk of error as we content ourselves to follow instructions and passively watch the deployment of the link. The possibility of error, inscribed at the very heart of our semiotic reality, is the essential condition for a process of discovery — and reading is one of our foremost processes of discovery. The hyperlink, because it can never vary, can never be wrong, places us, in this respect, in a logic of revelation — the apparition of truths stemming not from a quest for information, rather as a gift.

The gift of a link revealed with its surprise and novelty. Hypertexts in this sense are not discovered, but revealed. The difference between discovery and revelation, between searching for a truth and having one simply revealed without any effort, is the difference between a word and a word button, between a real sign and a hyperlink, between the semiosphere Lotman and cyberspace. Hypertextuality, by its very structure, strings us along from revelations to revelations. The unexpected and the marvelous, the spectacular imposes its logic. Moreover, what we find is not the result of a quest — it is a search barely palpable because highly sophisticated search engines are able to discover for us, and reveal like truth the substance of our investigation no matter how summary… From the masters of inquiry, cyberspace transforms us into spectators of a miracle that never ceases to repeat itself, a spectacle of the appearance.

It transforms us into believers, convinced that an exterior force controls our path, our destiny. Hyperlinks transform the basic drive associated with reading: the discovery associated with progression through a text, the step by step process required to read sentences and to organize them into a totality, a specific being of language. They transform this active process into a more passive stance, which might explain the important adjustments required to develop complex modalities of reading, necessitating by definition a greater participation. It goes against the grain.

Ironically, our entrance into cyberspace does not happen under the tutelage of Oedipus, the first philosopher; rather it transpires under the auspices of Oedipa Mass, the heroine of the novel The Crying of Lot 49, by Thomas Pynchon. Much like us with our context of hypertextuality, Oedipa moves from revelation to revelation; like us, it is in a state of stupefaction that she experiences a ballet of texts and symbols that come in an order she can never anticipate.

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And the novel finishes without us ever knowing the final word of the story. In the penultimate scene, Oedipa is attending an auction, where, in Lot 49, lies the key to the mystery. However, the text finishes at the moment the auctioneer starts the auction. The last revelation is not presented — indefinitely suspended beyond the confines of the text.

However, the logic of revelation requires precisely this type of suspense — the sequence cannot end. It is the expectation that creates the link. It is not the revealed truth that matters; it is the next that it anticipates, the revelation to come, the one always the more desirable insofar as it remains a promise. Conclusion Obviously, these are only a few of the factors that explain our difficulty in reading the new forms of texts present on our linked screens. Our screen culture is the result of two transformations: the first social and cultural, the second technological.

The impact is enormous and it calls forth a reconfiguration of our relations with texts and our reading practices. New supports have appeared that impose new constraints: we need to learn to assimilate these new constraints if we are to actualize the promises of these new supports.

New York: Hill, Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, Donald F. Comment aborder cette image? What type of materiality are we witnessing? What forms of reading, spectatorship, or interpretation are we engaging in? A networked screen is a screen connected to a network, as it appears to the user. It now keeps company with images, it is integrated into frames that give it life, bringing it into focus or helping it disappear. This substantially modifies its form and texture; a new vocabulary, if not a whole new grammar, is needed to grasp this new reality. One of the objectives of NT2 is to perceive this transition occurring with the computerization of literature, cinema and art.

For us now — and our culture has gradually grasped this over the past thirty years — the computer has become a media. It brings new forms and new media genres, much like the printing press, cinema, radio and television did. Windows and Mirrors We need new ways to express and use these new textual, artistic, and cinematographic forms. Without them, a primary ingredient of the contemporary imaginary will completely elude our understanding.

NT2 endorses a renewal of analytic theory in literary studies, cinematography and art history focusing on current transformations. The literary, artistic and cinematographic corpus is no longer limited to traditional forms of these works, and it is essential to study how these new forms imply new ways of manipulation, comprehension and interpretation — and how these reform the treatment of figures of the imaginary. Text, film and artwork are realities we have learned to apprehend — they are objects we know how to handle. This is no longer true with the new forms of works.

Digitalization significantly modifies analytical practices. These mutations impose, inevitably, imperatively, new ways of reading, new relationships with writing, and new intellectual techniques. How do we manipulate texts that shift, how do we analyze them, how de we cite them, segment them or give them to be read? And equally important, how do we produce them in experimentation with the latest available technologies?

The image is also undergoing important transformations. An image can now easily become interactive, become integrated into hypermedia works. How do we talk about this image? How do we define the new artistic practices it inspires? It has a history of more than forty years — the first uses of the computer for the production of art date back to the early sixties — and it has a future that seems particularly promising. Axes of Research NT2 proposes three principle axes of research, which combine to provide the laboratory with a database of original reference papers and avenues for future research.

Observatory for Hypermedia Literature and Art It is essential to identify and catalogue literary and artistic hypermedia works presently available on the Web or computer supports that comprise this new culture. These works, often little known and on sites where there support is not assured, must be brought together on one database, accessible for all researchers. This observatory fulfills the primary mandate of the laboratory, which is to facilitate and promote the writing, reading, study and archiving of experimentation in hypertextuality and hypermedia in the arts and literature.

NT2 is developing tools and a research nomenclature specific to these new objects, as well as refining the parameters of the classification and cataloguing of these texts and works, thereby providing a structure that not only makes them more easily accessible, it ensures their conservation. Among the tools presently in development: - The ALH Database Art and Literature Hypermedia , identifies and catalogues artistic and literary experimentation, describing them to effectively promote their study.

Atelier for Art and Literature Hypermedia The Atelier is a space for hypermedia and hypertext creation. The objective is to acquire experience, and an expertise, in the creation of hypertext and hypermedia works. It is also about generating interest for these new formats, and in the process, provide a space for the creation of original works, fostering a new generation of literary and artistic creators capable of crafting in a technological and computer environment.

Among our completed and current projects we have: - Navigations technologiques. Ollivier Dyens. A hypermedia rendering of a collection of Quebecois poems, with a series of papers on hypermedia process. VLB, Les Herbes rouges, The research includes investigation into the understanding of precise figures to the general analysis and deployment of specific imaginaries. The primary hypothesis underpinning this research axis emerges from an observation of a convergence between two fundamental transformations in our society: the first is with media, signaled by the introduction of new media, and the second is with the social, which is grounded on the observation of an unprecedented openness of cultural and commercial frontiers provoking important changes and generating a new cultural context.

How is the imaginary used in the disruption of this transformation? What new figures will we see appear? It is this broader sense of the word that should be understood here. Mais les choses ne sont pas aussi simples. April , p.

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Juli , o. Dezember , pp. Parmi les participants, deux artistes proposent des multiples. En , Alexander C. Alexander C. Edited by Dave Dyment and Gregory Elgstrand. YYZBooks, Toronto. Spring These aesthetic propositions, multiplied and editioned as objects, spark an incredible flurry of activity in the art scene between the nascent sixties and into the early seventies.

The ideas surrounding the multiple are born here; its objective is to bring art to the masses, all the while trying to erase the difference between original artwork and industrial production. However, by the mid sixties the multiple meets with resistance from the art world. A social context marked by a liberal system, a return to figuration and an investment by collectors in more secure valuables like paintings by neo-expressionists, thwart its infiltration and democratization.

All the same, it reappears sometime in the mid eighties, both in Europe and in North America. This paper engages in the debate sparked by this re-emergence of interest for the multiple, and the question of democratization it raises anew. The Ideological Multiple and the Cult of the Collector It is important to remember that the idea of the vulgarization of the multiple is, from the outset, inscribed in an ideological context emergent at the end of the fifties, with a focus on the democratization of art.

Most artistic practices during the fifties and sixties tend towards this philosophy and use the idea of the multiple. Although similar to the three-dimensional published object, which is the real multiple, they nonetheless equally show evidence of the general concept of multiplication, and therefore large distribution — a trend on the rise throughout the sixties.

Alas, the facts are not quite so straightforward. From the outset of the seventies, the first writings to officialise the practise of the multiple speak of its difficulty to access a wider audience. As such, attempts by actors in the art scene to get it out of the institutional and commercial art networks are ephemeral at best. Yet, in this same context, multiples rapidly become an object of intense speculation, encouraged by the actions of more traditional merchants.

For example, in , the curator John Tancock notices that many gallerists, initially sceptical, become improvised art publishers with the success of the multiples; they insist their artists create them in conjunction with their unique works. Consequently, these multiples are generally limited in number, signed and sold at high prices; as such, they continue to contribute to the fetishism of the collector. As early as , the author Jeanne Vilardebo explains that it is simply impossible to apply the tools of industry without conforming to the economies undergirding their viability.

In , Charles Spencer notes that the industrial procedures are too expensive for artists, and art merchants have neither the equipment nor the expertise for this type of reproduction. Speculation about the multiple and its entrance into the art market, its production and distribution difficulties, as well as it artisanal fabrication constitute the many obstacles for its vulgarization. In , Tommaso Trini argues that the frequently absurd levels of financial speculation combined with the limitation for the potential creation of the multiple this creates, substantiates the unfeasibility for the multiple to bring art to the masses.

Walker explains that the democratization of art failed during the sixties because of a perceived contradiction between serial fabrication of art and the idea of unlimited editions. The production of the multiple loses steam; by the mid seventies, the specialists of the era are already announcing the failure of the multiple to participate in the democratization of art. Yet, sometime during the mid-eighties, the multiple re-emerges.

A number of exhibitions are organised and mark the transition between two generations. As a result, exhibitions favour the presentation of works already known, limited, and distributed through traditional art networks. In the area of research, retrospectives predominate — intimating hunches or hypotheses about the renewal of the multiple. For the most part, they mainly confirm the theories developed in the sixties and seventies. The multiple is either distributed restrictively; or if more generally, it is more often than not simply perceived as a by-product.

This situation is paradoxical. The eighties and nineties are marked by a context of popularisation, at least from the point of view of the progress made for the democratization of art permitted with the developments in mass media, and a decline in interest for paintings at the outset of the eighties. All the while new modes of vulgarization of the multiple, reconciling large distribution and artistic quality, are becoming possible. A New Democratization of the Multiple: Engaging Technology and Mass Media Artists begin to multiply supports and diversify economies in order to increase distribution of a single work.

Consequently, this diversification of the media permits a large distribution of the work, i. As such, mass media plays a vital role. With the beginning of the eighties, it is possible to perceive their revitalization; even more so, with the arrival of the XXI century, which bears witness to the arrival of new networks, new equipment and new programs. In the artistic world, the presence of art on the Internet, multimedia installations and the CD-ROM become progressively the norm.

Artists reinvest more and more in such supports including digital equipment for scanning and recording media, as well as communication media in order to engage a reflection on their actual roles. The project is an opportunity for the participating artists to illustrate the sharing of social time, to comment on the relationship between the computer and its user. More importantly, the function of downloading the work is inherent to its actualization; therefore, the user now possesses a form of multiple.

All the same, the more traditional display and press media continue to play a major role. Despite a rise in animated and audio works via media in the electronic sector television, radio, Internet and recorded media videocassette, audio DVD , the diffusion of printed works via the media in the graphic arts sector book, magazine, poster, print remains strong. As well, free art information periodicals appear en masse towards the end of the nineties, in line with other periodicals sharing the same press media.

The distribution locations, usually in and around cultural and educational institutions, remain selective and imply a targeted clientele. Artists equally use the social structures of both thematic and general media. In doing so, they now participate in an economy no longer restricted to art. In , these contributions are brought together in an anthology of the same name; only 97 copies are printed and numbered. Der Standard. April Rosemarie Trockel. July Hans-Peter Feldmann. December Edited by the magazine Der Standard. Vienna, Austria. Part of the project Vital Use by museum in progress.

Multiple Economies Multiply Access to Multiples Access to art is favoured when the media take on the task of publisher, and when the weight of their business structure allows them to assume, with little or no consequence, the cost of the production of a work.


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Nevertheless, the artistic institution recuperates the perishable offer of the participation of the artists in the media. The example of the exhibition Vital Use shows that different economies are emerging for the consumption of artwork. In this instance, there is a double network, creating two markets: on the one hand, there is the media and a large distribution to the public. On the other hand, there is the economy of art, more rarefied and isolated. This multiplication of supports and economies pairs equally well with the creation of a wider range of artistic devices, where diversification brings about greater accessibility.

This diversification comes into being largely through systems of serialization, fragmentation or variability, which simultaneously contribute to modify the idea of the autonomous multiple, conceived uniquely for immediate distribution by art dealers and gallerists. Each one contrasts communication devices with their non-utilization. These images constitute a database whereby they undergo transformations through different events. The seven images then change into the form of post cards and emails in , addressed, by request of The Ottawa Art Gallery, to their list of contacts for the exhibition, In All the Wrong Places.

The aesthetic message disseminated through the copies in each edition circulates through these different supports and generate a serialization, i. This dissemination also creates a plural regime for the work; it does so by creating the specific economic conditions favourable for a wider access to art. Specifically, limited and costly editions destined for collectors are associated with the distribution of the work in editions printed in larger quantities, therefore less expensive, and therefore more accessible for the public. Artists find assistance from diverse partners for the distribution of their works.

Galleries, bookstores, museums and even art centres ensure, sometimes even with the participation of the spectator, a part of the production, the distribution and communication of multiples, even when presented outside the commercial and institutional networks. This issue is all the more present as adaptableness hovers over artwork throughout the nineties; now situated somewhere between performance, sculpture, installation, activism or even multimedia art, it has the vocation to encompass ever-changing supports put in place by the artists.

In this sense, the exhibition is now part of these supports; it is during this period that Hans-Ulrich Obrist rethinks his role, and encourages the organisation of local events, thereby complementing the habitual art networks. The exhibition becomes an especially distinct means to produce and to distribute multiples, a discussion pursued shortly.

As its name suggests, it associates a new conception of the exhibition of multiples, with the particularity of soliciting the active participation of the spectator. The visitors can use it to create graffiti on the walls of the gallery, or take it home later. The development of interactive media in art during this period, the dialogue advocated between artist and spectator, again spark a reflection about the active participation of the latter and the joint creation of an edition.

On the contrary, it permits the possession in part, or in whole, of this program through the intermediary of its edition. He invites the spectator to create and print an in-quatro from a CD-ROM of the same name, installed in the display area. The CD-ROM is also the object of a future edition, accompanied by a portfolio in , and offered for sale in specialized bookstores [Fig. A Shadow In Your Window. The spectator is not simply an anonymous contributor to a work; the spectator keeps a part of it.

As for the edition that emerges, it attests to the effective creation of a provisional aesthetic and allows for the redistribution of a part of the property of the work to this new spectator co-creator. Clearly, it is the participation of the spectator that now allows and supports a form of vulgarization of the multiple. The Exhibitionist Multiple The exhibition occupies an equally important role in the distribution of the multiple. During the eighties and the nineties it often contributes to legitimize a part of the edition distributed en masse in the public space posters, artist pamphlets, etc.

As effect, this free and anonymous distribution calls into question the control of the traditional environment of the work of art and the authority of its author; still, it is either recuperated by the collector supplemental edition or signed works , or redirected into commercial or institutional networks, or reinstated under the authority of an exhibition.

Moreover, it also renders the work hitherto marginalized more visible, and therefore more accessible. The exhibition equally plays an important role in the communication of the works it is presenting, producing and distributing, especially so beginning in the early nineties; this parallels large publishing houses, to the detriment of smaller ones. Many editions are, for example, freely distributed en masse in the display area of an exhibition. Sometimes, depending on the exhibition, distribution occurs at the entrance of the display area.

The multiple now becomes a form of announcement for the exhibition. Je me souviens, set de table. As well, the announcement of an exhibition now takes place through its publication in the form of catalogues, precipitated in the eighties and nineties through mass distribution.

These catalogues go beyond the functions typically associated with traditional exhibition catalogues and take on diverse forms. They can include participation by the artists created especially for the catalogue; or, as in the example to come, constitute eyewitness-editions of previous events. The catalogue of the exhibition EV A in Limerick includes a small red book with fifty-nine pages, with an essay by the curator Guy Tortosa, as well as forty-seven postcards of artists, previously placed for sale in boutiques and card stores of Limerick, Belfast, Cork and Dublin as well as in stores and institutions of many different French cities.

EV A The institution taking charge of the conception of an edition, including its distribution during the exhibition, remains fairly similar in logic to that of the catalogues — as museums reconsider more and more their role, and even the possibility of instituting a secondary market. The public for exhibitions remains relatively the same; however, with the subsidizing of their work by the place of the exhibition, the artist is now capable of making donations, offering a work to interested individuals. The institution acts like an art market by proposing an economy of the exhibition where one can appropriate a multiple.

The Commercializing Multiple This perspective proposes to show the importance of how the multiple provides evidence of the adaptation by artists to the modes of commercial functioning. With the intensification of the consumer society during the nineties, artists renew the question of the relation between art and the mundane; they generate a subversive critique, all the while trying to highlight what transforms the mundane object into art.

Pagans mock the resurrection and call him crazy. But Paul persists. Even though he leaves Athens as a seeming failure and heads for Corinth, the seed of faith has been planted and eventually grows into a Church with deep roots. When the Spirit of truth comes he will guide you into all the truth. What we do need is to have confidence in the Lord and to give our hearts to the Father who loves us.

The future is in his hands. A friend of mine was a student in France in at the Catholic University of the West. And one day her class visited a chateau in the Loire Valley. The docent took them into a room with an enormous stretch of hanging fabric, many yards across from one wall to the other. And on the fabric were hundreds of ugly knots and tangles of stray thread in a chaos of confused shapes that made very little sense.

And what they saw is the great Tapestry of the Apocalypse of St. John, the story of the Book of Revelation in 90 immense panels. So much of what we do seems a tangle of frustrations and failures. And this is why our lives matter. So have faith. Trust in the Lord. And believe in his love. Thanks, and God bless you. The Jubilee Year in honor of the th anniversary of St. Lessons from Padre Pio on how to pray well Here, we offer some lessons from St.

February 2, He could do this because he was always connected to the source: he ceaselessly quenched his thirst with Jesus Crucified.

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Pope Francis explains that Padre Pio taught, with his life, that prayer is a spiritual work of mercy, entrusting everything to God, the Father. It is a gift of faith and love. Prayer is like bread. Prayer is the strength of the Church. Pope Francis explains that the heart of God is opened by prayer because He is a Father who cannot resist the voice of his children.

Prayer is the recipe for joy The Holy Father, remembering St. Pio, teaches that constant prayer is a part of fighting the good fight. The pope then ended by declaring that the key to a joyful heart is prayer. Padre Pio St. Pio was a Capuchin friar who dedicated his life to the salvation of souls.

He was born in , joined the Capuchin order at the age of 15, and was ordained to the priesthood in On July 28, , he was sent to the friary at San Giovanni Rotondo, where he remained until his death. This phenomenon would attract an endless procession of journalists and doctors.

Above all, however, the stigmata attracted many of the faithful. Read more: Padre Pio bore the stigmata, but one secret wound was more painful than the others On February 5, , the relics of the famous Capuchin arrived at the Vatican to be presented for the veneration of the faithful for nearly a week, as part of the Jubilee of Mercy. Lundi le 24 juillet Excerpts from the Diary of Saint Faustina On one occasion, I saw Satan hurrying about and looking for someone among the sisters, but he could find no one.

I felt an interior inspiration to command him in the Name of God to confess to me what he was looking for among the sisters. And he confessed, though unwillingly, "I am looking for idle souls [cf. Let the toiling and tired souls rejoice. She is run off her feet, in a peculiarly modern way, for the proliferation of labor-saving devices has added so much to our temporal burden, and to the requirements for speed.

The little buzzers are constantly going off, and we are enslaved by everything from our kettles to our cell phones. True, she is essential to the game, and is consistently returned to the center of it, but she is hardly appreciated in her own right. Others take the glory. Even among women, others take the glory, and the primary achievement of feminism it seems to me has been to make women into inferior men, judging them by standards unmistakably masculine, then adding back functions unmistakably feminine such as having babies as mere pile-on.

Yet even the capacity to make such a joke proves the criticism valid. He does not deny that household work needs doing, or depreciate it. He Christ, the Church Fathers, all consecrated priests, and this bishop combined in persona Christi is saying that we must be Mary before we play Martha. This is not a hard saying, but hard to understand for the modern mind which is, after all, quite distracted, and does not pause to consider things, in the silence that is the condition for contemplation of any kind.

We think, to be sure, but only on our feet, when the better part is to think first kneeling. It is what makes modern domestic life so much resemble a situation comedy: In reality, Jesus seems to sketch the outlines of a spiritual pedagogy: we should always make sure to be Mary before becoming Martha. But my own gnawing counsels of perfection must retreat before the plain substance.

We must feed the poor, care for the ill, visit the prisoner, clean the environment, but these tasks are extrinsic to our sacramental core. First, we must actually be Christian, in conversation with Our Lord; and God speaks to us through silence. Later, in some of the most poignant passages of the book, the Cardinal directly confronts the question that most vexes the modern mind. Why does God remain silent in the presence of misery and evil; why does He allow the horror and suffering that falls on the just and the unjust alike?

Phrased this way, the question begins to answer itself. Though she seems to do nothing, in our agony, she is there. David Warren is a former editor of the Idler magazine and columnist with the Ottawa Citizen. He has extensive experience in the Near and Far East. His blog, Essays in Idleness, is now to be found at: davidwarrenonline.

Vendredi le 7 juillet Stunning story: Miraculous recovery attributed to Blessed Pier Giorgio Frassati A young man's unexplained recovery may be the miracle that leads to the future saint's canonization In , Kevin Becker fell from the second floor of a house he shared with a couple of college roommates, fracturing his skull in five places and damaging every lobe of his brain.

After an emergency operation he lay stable but unresponsive for nine days. Less than three weeks after his injury he was wheeled to the door of the hospital, where he stood up, slung his bag over his shoulder, and walked to the car tossing a football with his brother. This is not the usual way. A week after his injury, the doctors were talking of putting him into a medically induced coma, a last-ditch effort. Days later he opened his eyes, and was soon speaking, standing, and walking normally.

After Kevin left the hospital he went to physical rehab, and found that he was five steps ahead of the others there, including those who had been in recovery for six months to a year. On October 11th he took a battery of cognitive tests, and completed them in just two hours rather than the usual six. He was cleared to return to college where he finished his degree; he now works making loans to small businesses. Again, this is not the usual way.

I had the pleasure of hearing Kevin Becker speak about his experiences on October 29th of this year, at a celebration of the Year Jubilee of the Dominican Order. During his coma, he remembers waking up in the house he shared with his friends, and hearing someone downstairs. I already have two roommates. They fought about it, as if they were brothers, but George was adamant. He encouraged him to be patient. Frassati, a Lay Dominican, died of polio in at the age of 24, after a life in which his family knew him mostly for his love of mountain climbing, and the poor of Turin knew him as their beloved friend and benefactor.

He woke the next day. From the moment he woke, his studies became important to him, and his grades improved remarkably. La lecture est donc un exercice externe. Its easiness. Its object. It is the substance of self-examination. The tap. At any moment, if I desire to know where I am, what is the state of my soul, what tone echoes within me I merely ask: where is my heart? By this question I seek solely to know what is the dominant disposition of my heart, which inspires and directs it, and keeps it as it were in its possession. A number of impressions and yearnings and feelings throng about the heart: it is an unfathomable reservoir; but whatever the number and the nature of the dispositions, there is always one that is in an ascendancy.

It is not always the same, the heart of man undergoes so many fluctuations! One feeling takes the place of another, one impression drives out another; but it is always one that holds first place, and gives direction to the heart and governs its activity. That is the one, indeed, which gives the true tone of my soul. In order to seize it, I ask myself this simple question: where is my heart? This question causes me to cast a rapid glance into the innermost centre of my being, and I at once see the salient point; I give ear to the tone echoed by my soul, and immediately catch the dominant note.


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It is an intuitive proceeding, and is quite instantaneous. There is no need for intellectual enquiries, efforts of will, and ransacking the memory; I hear and see. It is a glance, in ictu oculi. It is simple and rapid. A soul must be quite ignorant of its inner self, and quite unaccustomed to enter in to itself, if it does not experience this. Or else, on the contrary, it may be the love of God, the desire for sacrifice, the fervour kindled by some touch of grace, full submission to God, the joy of humility, etc.

Whether it be good or bad, it is the main and dominant disposition that must be ascertained; for we must look at the good as well as the evil, since it is the state of the heart that it is important to know. I must go directly to the mainspring, which sets all the wheels of the clock in motion. Sometimes it happens that this mainspring is a persistent and continuous disposition, such as bitterness or aversion. But, at other times, it is some merely momentary impression, which, however, was strong enough to impress the heart for a considerable time with some characteristic impulse; such, for instance, as the generous acceptance of a suffering; it was the affair of a moment, yet it imparted something to the heart, which will set it in motion during one or several days.

In fact, the dominant disposition, by determining finally the impulses of my heart, is like a resultant of the powers of the other feelings, which are practically concentrated and summed up therein. Hence, strictly speaking, I might be satisfied with this essential glance; and by it I might strengthen the weak, heal the sick, bind up that which was broken, bring again that which was driven away, and seek for that which was lost. And it is done: I see. I correct and set it straight, if necessary: I humble myself and give thanks, if all is well.

And this I can do at any moment, and thousands of times; it is such a simple act! As a matter of fact, nothing escapes from it, since it grasps the centre of everything. Why need I worry about other details? I need not cut the branches off a tree, when it is down; nor need I follow the course of the streams, when I am at the source. When the water spouts forth in profusion from the host of little holes in the rose of a watering-pot, would it not be a tedious and troublesome matter to shut up each little hole one after the other in order to cut off the flow?

And if there were a tap lower down, enabling one to stop the flow by a single turn, would it not be stupid to tire oneself with trying to stop all the little holes? And that all the more, because there is the risk of their coming open again. He whose examination of conscience stops at details and outward things, is passing his time in stopping up the little holes The inward glance turns the tap To stop at details and at what is outward, is to remain at the circumference and to manoeuvre on the surface of the soul.

I go straight to the centre and take possession of my whole soul, when I cast this penetrating glance at my dominant disposition. Addressing the faithful and pilgrims from the window of his study in the Apostolic Palace, on the Solemnity of Sts. Peter and Paul, the pope reflected on how the Lord miraculously liberated the two Apostles from prison and persecution.

If we turn to the Lord in the Sacrament of Penance, the pope said, he will liberate us interiorly through the power of his grace, and lift the weight we experience from sin. Dear brothers and sisters, Good morning. The Fathers of the Church loved to compare the holy Apostles Peter and Paul to two columns, on which the visible construction of the Church rests. Both sealed with their own blood the witness they rendered to Christ through preaching and service to the nascent Christian community.

The Book of the Acts of the Apostles cf. But he was miraculously saved so he could complete his evangelizing mission, first in the Holy Land and then in Rome, putting all his energy at the service of the Christian community. Paul, too, experienced hostility from which he was liberated by the Lord. Sent by the Risen One into many cities to pagan peoples, he encountered strong resistance by those of his own religion and by the civil authorities. Writing to the disciple Timothy, he reflects on his own life and missionary journey, as well as on the persecutions he endured for the sake of the Gospel.

Both, through their personal and ecclesial experiences, show and tell us, today, that the Lord is always by our side. He walks with us; he never abandons us. Especially in time of trial, God extends his hand to us; he comes to our aid and liberates us from the threat of our enemies. But let us remember that our true enemy is sin, and the Evil One who urges us on to it.

When we are reconciled with God, especially in the Sacrament of Penance, receiving the grace of forgiveness, we are freed from the chains of evil and alleviated from the weight of our errors. Thus we can continue along of path as joyful heralds and witnesses of the Gospel, showing that we are the first to have received mercy. To the Virgin Mary, Queen of the Apostles, we address our prayer, which today is especially for the Church in Rome and for this city which has Peter and Paul as patrons.

May they obtain for [the Church and city] spiritual and material well being. May the goodness and grace of the Lord sustain the Roman people, that they might live in fraternity and harmony, making the Christian faith shine forth with the intrepid ardor of Saints Peter and Paul. The saint who walked 3, miles to join the Jesuits Blessed Peter Kibe was a martyr in 17th-century Japan, but even among these heroes of the faith, he stands out.

I wonder if there has ever been a Christian more determined than Blessed Peter Kibe, one of more than Japanese martyrs who have been raised to the altar. Blessed Peter Kibe is such a one, a man for the ages and a dear friend of mine. Born of Japanese Christian parents in , Peter was raised in a country already hostile to the faith. Despite persecutions, Peter entered a Jesuit seminary with hopes of being ordained one day. Read more: My friends Joe and Vicki protected Jews from the Nazis Rather than accept this response, Peter made a private vow that he would continue to pursue a Jesuit vocation.

Nothing daunted, Peter looked elsewhere. He sailed to Goa. When he found the doors closed there as well, it seemed time to set off for Rome.

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On foot. When he arrived, Kibe became the first Japanese person ever to visit Jerusalem. He then made his way to Rome, convinced the ecclesial authorities of his qualifications, and was ordained a priest six months after arriving in Rome. Asked to make a two-year novitiate with the Jesuits before returning to Japan, Peter managed to convince his superior that there was no time to waste, that the Japanese people needed him immediately.

This being the 17th century, though, nothing was ever immediate. It took him 14 months just to get to India. When he finally made it to Macao, he was told that the government would allow no Christians to sail on their ships to Japan. Peter was then chased by pirates all the way to Siam, where he found the same difficulty. For two years, he tried to sail from Siam, then headed to Manila. Still unable to find a ship that would take him to Japan, he built one. The boat was attacked by termites.

Peter plugged the holes and set off. When the victims of the shipwreck pulled themselves together, they found that they were in the same spot from which St. Francis Xavier had launched his mission to Japan some 80 years earlier. With the zeal of Xavier whose canonization he had attended in Rome , Father Kibe arrived in Japan at last. He spent 24 years trying to become a priest in Japan before he finally set foot on Japanese soil again, all the time knowing that he was headed towards torture and certain death.

Kibe managed to minister for nine years under constant threat of death. When he was betrayed by one of his flock, he was brought before Fr. Ferreira the famous apostate priest of Silence fame. Kibe implored Ferreira to return to the faith. Kibe was tortured beyond all reason. As he hung in the pit and other priests apostatized, Fr. He was beatified with companions, still only a small fraction of some 35, Christians killed in Japan between and We run from suffering; Kibe ran toward it. Blessed Peter Kibe, pray for us! It surpasses the combined understanding of all men and angels. All the angels and all humans have emerged from the very depths of Your tender mercy.

Mercy is the flower of love. God is love, and mercy is His deed. In love it is conceived; in mercy it is revealed. Everything I look at speaks to me of God's mercy. Even God's very justice speaks to me about His fathomless mercy, because justice flows from love. It is my daily food. My whole soul listens intently to God's wishes.

I do always what God asks of me, although my nature often quakes and I feel that the magnitude of these things is beyond my strength. On that day, the suffering in my soul was more severe than ever before. From early morning, I felt as if my body and soul had separated. I felt that God's presence had penetrated my whole being; I felt all the justice of God within me; I felt I stood alone before God.

I thought: one word from my spiritual director would set me entirely at peace; but what can I do? However, I decided to seek light in holy confession. When I uncovered my soul to the priest, [] he was afraid to continue hearing my confession, and that caused me even greater suffering. When I see that a priest is fearful, I do not obtain any inner peace. So I have decided that only to my spiritual director will I open my soul in all matters, from the greatest to the least, and that I will follow his directions strictly. But this is not what I want to speak about.

I want to tell about a strange thing that happened to me for the first time. When the confessor started talking to me, I did not understand a single word. After the confession, I meditated on Jesus' terrible Passion, and I understood that what I was suffering was nothing compared to the Savior's Passion, and that even the smallest imperfection was the cause of this terrible suffering. Then my soul was filled with very great contrition, and only then I sensed that I was in the sea of the unfathomable mercy of God. Oh, how few words I have to express what I am experiencing!

I feel I am like a drop of dew engulfed in the depths of the bottomless ocean of divine mercy. I understood this [need of] dependence. Samedi le 24 juin Pope Francis speaks to priests - by Bishop Robert Barron The priest celebrating Mass is speaking, in a sense, on behalf of the entire material creation.

They suggested to add at least one more session specifically devoted to the relationships with their supervisor s and to have three-hour session instead of two, in order to have more time for discussions. Here are a few comments from the participants:. Cultural adjustments. The programme was designed to address them in a global perspective, trying to give options for participants to keep on searching and sharing beyond the four sessions.

As expected, some participants would have wished to further investigate one or the other aspect depending on their own difficulties. After this pilot experiment, the next step is to go on experimenting by teaching the programme in various settings during the academic year in order to improve it further.

One monthly research seminar opened to M. Simultaneously, research funding will be allocated to set up an experimental protocol. In the future, we hope to be able to train psychologists so that the programme can be taught in French universities, not only to PhD students, but also at earlier stages undergraduate and graduate students. Beyond the scope of this intervention, what is at stake is a positive transformation of the individuals, so that they can grow, develop their full potential and find the best way for them to contribute to scholarship or even, more widely, if they wish to do so, to the society and the future of the planet.

Journal of School Counseling , 12 All you need to know about action research. London: SAGE. Are randomised controlled trials the only gold that glitters? Perils of evidence-based medicine. Perspectives on Biology and Medicine, 53 , 1, — See Senik, C. The French unhappiness puzzle: The cultural dimension of happiness. See Henrich, J. The weirdest people in the world? Many and heterogeneous stress factors affect PhD students: elaboration of a research project, integration in a research lab and into various networks, relationships with the supervisor s and with peers, growing competition, quest for funding, the doctoral writing, solitude, lack of self-confidence, precariousness, uncertain future, etc.

Various institutional initiatives flourish around the world e. More details here. Expected results based on previous studies see e. Donaldson, are: on the one hand, improved engagement at work, self-motivation, personal growth and well-being; on the other reduced anxiety, negative emotions and depression. Participants will thus not only benefit from the various techniques that they will learn during this cycle, but also contribute to improve academic learning through the publication of the results of this research. Sessions will take place on March 6th, 13th, 20th and 27th with groups of a dozen PhD students.

The only condition to attend this programme is to be registered for PhD in a French university and to commit to attending all four sessions. Registration is open until February 20th. If you are interested, or for more information, please contact Pascale ph [at] ehess [dot] fr. Qui peut y participer? So let us assess to what extent the goal was met, and what the participants have to say about their experience… The main themes that emerged from the data analysis of the open-ended questionnaires, and from the semi-structured interviews that were conducted at the end of the project can be divided in two broad categories: the various ways in which the programme was helpful, and suggestions for its improvement in the future.